Podcast examines free speech on campus

Sophomore Evan DaCosta hosted the second installment of the “Pod. Country. Notre Dame.”podcast series Tuesday night to discuss free speech on college campuses. The event was held in the LaFortune ballroom and featured a panel composed of seniors Armani Vaniko Porter and Brendan Clemente, along with sophomore Nicholas Marr.

Editor’s note: DaCosta is a News writer and Marr is a Viewpoint columnist for The Observer.

DaCosta posed questions to the three students regarding the right to free speech, the relationship between freedom of expression and hate crimes and asked their thoughts on bringing controversial speakers to college campuses.

Throughout the panel, all three students unanimously expressed the need to protect freedom of expression, but each focused on different reasons for its importance.

Marr said he believes that amidst the various controversial speakers and opinions surfacing in recent years, speakers and academics in pursuit of truth are worth the listen.

“[Notre Dame students] have a bigger personal duty to pursue truth and seek truth because religion challenges us to do so,” he said. “That’s why Notre Dame has such a great place in higher education.”

Clemente closely followed Marr’s emphasis on truth by referencing Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes.

“The best remedy for a bad idea is a good idea,” he said “The good ideas, the right ones, the truth, will come through the marketplace and exchange of ideas.”

Clemente said it is through active conversation and this exchange of ideas that hateful rhetoric, such as racism, can be overturned.

While Marr and Clemente focused on those who are participating in conversations and utilizing free speech, Porter said he was more interested in those who are not speaking.

“When we begin to limit who can and cannot speak on campus, academia begins to lose its growth” he said.

Porter said his concerns in limiting campus speech were largely rooted in silence by exclusion, specifically citing experiences with marginalized communities.

“A huge part of this is figuring out whose voices are not being heard,” he added. “Figuring out why those voices aren’t being heard can tell you a lot about a university.”

Porter specifically called on Notre Dame for not hosting more speakers from the Pokagon Band of Potawatomi, the Native American tribe who originally claimed the land on which Notre Dame resides.

“It is very rare that members of that tribe come here and we need to question why that is so,” he said.

John Duffy, a professor from the English department who researches ethics and rhetoric, said he thought the event fostered a good discussion and pushed for students to continue to the conversation even further.

“Once we establish that we have the right to invite speakers of diverse views, then as a community we need to decide what kinds of people we want to hear from and what kinds of people we are interested in hearing from,” he said.

DaCosta said he hopes to record the third podcast for the “Pod. Country. Notre Dame.” series by the end of the month.


Covering 2018 Bengal Bouts

Bengal Bouts” is one of the University of Notre Dame’s most prominent traditions and outreach opportunities. Initiated by Knute Rockne in 1920, the annual boxing tournament raises money for the Holy Cross Missions in Bangladesh. The following summer, a few of the Notre Dame boxers are selected to visit the missions in Bangladesh and witness the reality of the Bangladeshi people.

This was my first opportunity to cover a sporting event (and a sport I am extremely unfamiliar with). The night was fast paced and I alternated between taking notes on the current fight and recalling details of fights that had just concluded. With a little over thirty seconds in overlap between matches, the night was a great, immersive opportunity to cover a rapidly evolving and unfamiliar story.


Matthew “The Fighting Amish” Yoder def. Ryan “Short Stack” Smith

Smith, a Morrissey freshman, held his own against O’Neill senior Yoder. Smith’s first round was filled with precisely-placed hits against Yoder’s strong and continuous stamina. Smith started the match strong with a high caliber of play while Yoder gained momentum throughout the fight. Yoder was given the victory in a split decision.

David “R.A. Dave” Hamilton def. Tim “Jim Jhompson” Thompson

Thompson, a Keenan sophomore, took on Hamilton, a Siegfried senior. Hamilton had a strong ringside showing, with a large group of Siegfried residents supporting the senior RA. Thompson had a strong defensive performance, fighting tirelessly throughout the match while Hamilton continuously gained speed and motivation from his group of supporters. Hamilton ultimately fought with experience and precision and went on to win the match in a unanimous decision.

Joaquin “Hindi Humuhupa” Camara def. Liam “Nuge” Nugent

Joaquin “Hindi Humuhupa” Camara, a senior from Keenan, took on Liam “Nuge” Nugent, a sophomore from Dunne, in the 148-pound weight division. Camara’s expertise shone through the entire match, and he put on an aggressive performance. His combination of strong hits and quick dodges made him an impossible target. Nugent relied heavily on stamina, continuing to fight against a highly-skilled opponent. Nugent fought through Camara’s fast hits and held his own in the ring. Nugent finished the match strong, but Camara ultimately won with a unanimous decision.

Michael “The K.O.” Feijoo def. Drew “Man Bear” Cushing

Feijoo, a junior living in Morrissey, was strong on offense, maintained a high level of energy and delivered powerful, well-placed hits. Cushing, a sophomore living in Alumni, had a good defensive first round and maintained his energy throughout the fight. Feijoo’s well placed hits were countless in the second round as the Morrissey junior slowly began to dominate the fight. Feijoo moved with swift agility, making use of the entire ring. His experienced strategy ultimately shone through as he proceeded to win in a unanimous decision.

Ben “Gumbo” Bernhard def. George “Azucar”  Azcarate

Sophomore Fisher resident Ben “Gumbo” Bernhard faced off-campus graduate student George “Azucar” Azcarate in the 154-pound weight division preliminary round. Bernhard and Azcarate were evenly matched, making for an engaging fight. Both boxers were strong on offense, continuously and relentlessly throwing hits and maintaining their power throughout the fight. Azcarate started strong but slowly lost his momentum, while Bernhard continued to elevate his level of play as the match went on, playing with both accuracy and focus. Bernhard’s stamina brought him through the end of the match, coming out victorious in a split decision.

Julian “Do You Have A Warrant” Minondo def. Michael “The Process” Shannon

Michael “The Process” Shannon, a freshman from Keenan faced off-campus senior, Julian “Do You Have A Warrant” Minondo, in the 154-pound weight division. Minondo stepped into the ring with confidence and executed the match with prowess and finesse. Shannon utilized his long reach and delivered a high caliber performance. Shannon matched many of Minondo’s hits in the first round. Minondo, however, had an electric performance through the entirety of the fight. Minondo’s strong offensive from the opening bell ultimately led him to a unanimous decision victory.


“In the Midnight Hour”


I read this really great article last week called “In the Midnight Hour” – which is super relevant to my life because I am always awake at the literal midnight hour (and the hour after that, and the one after that, etc). But, beyond the literal, the article was aiming to address those moments in your life when the clock has moved onto the next day, the scoreboard has reset, and you have to make some decisions.

The author (who’s name I can find) was suggesting that the beauty of “midnight hours” is that we’ve gained experiences that lead us to pivotal moments. We have the opportunity to reflect, go forward, and adjust our plan of action to make an even greater impact. I’ve had a lot of midnight hours lately – those moments where the clock changes and I realize that it is up to me to act and react, to call the next play.

Personally, I found my most ground breaking midnight hour to be the wee hours of the morning on November 9th (#imstillwither), but smaller and less publicly centered “midnights” hit me randomly. Whether it be a controversial conversation in the classroom or a provocative news headline, perspective shifting conversations keep slapping me in the face and forcing me to step up the plate and tackle the daunting.

I’m really scared of public shootings – various shooting scenarios run through my mind a few times a day. But I have always zoned out of my nightmare and settled back into my comforting reality. Tonight, however, I was texting a friend about the anniversary of the Sandy Hook shooting. We exchanged articles and pictures and she had me watch a terrifying video. We fired texts back and forth – it was unsettling, unnerving, too real – and then we sat with it. I put down my phone, laid in my bed and let the weight of video rest on my shoulders, creep into my chest.

Thinking about these moments is rattling, scary, and uncomfortable, but it also bears the burden of responsibility. For me, it is too easy to roll over and wish away the nightmare, but not everyone has that privilege. My nightmare is someone else’s reality and to that I have no response. So, in awe of these various realities that make up our human experience, I am taking a step back to document my own midnight hour and, at 12:43 AM, I am accepting the burden of responsibility that comes with reflection, contemplation, and the human experience.

“Let’s Drive to Boston”


I’m driving across the country.

My dad and I have trekked over 1,700 miles over 3 days in my little, charcoal, Chevy cruise. The backseat looks like a game of Tetris and and the trunk is precariously filled with golf clubs, a Playstation, and whatever else I didn’t want at my feet. My dad does most of the driving; we tried to swap spots but he was subpar at updating my creative Snapchat creations (everyone tune in!).

We’re a good team; he’s calm, rational, and a good driver with great stamina. I’m easily excited, talkative, and good at googling car-ride games while preaching about my “social justice warrior” passions (our latest interest: food deserts). My mom tried to have us keep a journal, but my dad’s inner pilot decided that our journal is our “log book” where we track mileage, keep receipts, and time stamp all of our arrivals and departures.

I am, however, giving each state a superlative; a one liner that sums up the most memorable element of a seemingly endless car-ride. So:

Arizona: Best Sunset.

I was not, however, ever supposed to see the Arizona sunset. Somewhere between Phoenix and Flagstaff, a wildfire decided to erupt and lock us in dead stop traffic. So, I sat barefoot and cross legged on the roof of my car for three hours, feeling like a flower child. It was because of this little, cute, three hour delay that we ended up seeing the electric pink AZ sunset that arched over the mountains. So thanks @wildfire, I guess.

New Mexico: Most Unexpected

I expected dry, red, rocks and whatever visuals High School Musical subtly incorporated into my perception of the state. Though I believe we drove through the red mountains at night, my experience of New Mexico was rolling, brown hills and ultra-small towns. The isolation was oppressive and when we finally reached Gallup for a quick pitstop, we were greeted with what appeared to be an extremely under-privileged and under-cared for Native American community that left me feeling exceptionally guilty as I drove away in my white-privilege vehicle. I wish they knew I felt the deep guilt and the yearning to be their ally and accomplice (where are all my American Studies friends).

Texas: Best Drive

I had never been out of a Texas airport, but my Texas experience was everything the overzealous residents brag about and more. Highlights include: Taya the waitress who has never left Amarillo and delivered my sweet tea (I audibly laughed when she greeted me with y’all and ma’am), the expansive sky and killer country stations, and the woman who called 95.7 to ask why the government *chooses* the highway as the official “Deer Crossing Zones” if so many people end up hitting the deer. She suggested that the deer crossing zones be redirected to less populated areas (I do not make this up – Politico Fact Checked).

Oklahoma: Most Quaint

My SMC pal Adele Edmonds has always raved about Oklahoma City, her awesome family and gorgeous, historic home. Even though Adele was not home, her family opened their doors (literally) with loving arms to give us a quick 20 min tour (I can pass along the history if anyone would like further details) and the best restaurant and ice cream suggestions. OKC, you exceeded expectations!

Arkansas: Most Religious

My dad and I counted 8 churches/places of worship in our first twenty minutes across the state border. I guess this might feed into the state stereotype, and I was hoping to counteract that, but the religious presence was definitely there. (No Duggar sightings either #sad).

Tennesse: To Be Determined (award cannot be granted until we hit Nashville and Knoxville.)

We just arrived in Memphis and ate some killer brisket and rockin ribs. While waiting for our table, we talked with a man who has lived in Little Rock his entire life and hates all Unions and says they plague the manufacturing field. His viewed varied from my own (to say the least), but this was his experience of America and I had to accept that it is just as valid as my own. I had never met anyone like him – with his thick southern drawl and Arkansas-ian roots. Our conversation, however, was one of the most civil and beneficial political conversations I have had in a long time.

As an American Studies major, it is extremely cool to meet all the walks of life that make up our one, giant country. I am learning to(kind of) love the “fly-over-states,” to cherish the 3,000 mile journey, and see the value in “all kinds of kinds.”

Notre Dame Among Many College Campuses Dealing with Sexual Assault

Editor’s note: The names of the sexual assault victims’ names have been changed in accordance with guidelines from the Society of Professional Journalists Code of Ethics.

By Marie Fazio and Adrianna Fazio

Sarah has been a victim of sexual assault several times throughout her past four years at Notre Dame. Looking back, she sees countless frustrations and internalizations with both the reporting process and her, now convicted, assailant’s treatment.

“People are hard on themselves here, there’s a lot of internalizing of blame and you don’t want to ruin someone’s career,” she said. “That was my biggest drawback. As much as he screwed me over and ruined me in a lot of ways that I can’t get back…I don’t want him to not get a degree. If he gets dismissed, that’s it….He will not graduate with a degree from Notre Dame.”

Sarah is not alone.

Notre Dame has a public and ongoing conversation about sexual assault since the 2015 documentary “The Hunting Ground” highlighted the story of Lizzy Seeburg, a Saint Mary’s student who took her own life a few days after filing a sexual assault report against a Notre Dame football player.

Notre Dame’s issues are part of a national trend on college campuses. According to the Rape, Abuse and Incest National Network, 23.1 percent of female and 5.4 percent of male undergraduate students nationwide experience rape or sexual assault through physical force, violence or incapacitation.

Notre Dame students participated in Clothesline Day by hanging shirts with empowering messages in the center of campus.
Photo by Adrianna Fazio

Campus Climate Survey

In 2016,  the Notre Dame campus climate survey — which all Notre Dame students had the chance to respond to in the 2016 fall semester — reported 5 percent of females and 1 percent of males who responded had experienced some form of non-consensual sexual intercourse during their time at the university. The term was defined by oral, anal, or vaginal penetration, to any degree, with any object.

Twenty-one percent of Notre Dame females and 4 percent of Notre Dame males reported having experienced other forms of non-consensual sexual contact. This statistic does not align with the low number of reports made every year to Notre Dame Security Police (NDSP) or the Title IX office.

NDSP sends out crime alert emails when the Title IX coordinator receives a report of sexual assault on campus. In 2016 and 2017, only four sexual assault-related crime alerts were sent to students, a number that has decreased since 2015.  

Notre Dame assaults reported to the community via email, 2013-2017

Map created by Marie Fazio and Adrianna Fazio, information gathered from University of Notre Dame archives on their public website.  

In the Campus Climate Survey, 90 percent of those who reported having experienced non-consensual sexual assault in the last 12 months said that they did not report the incident. Reasons for not reporting ranged from a lack of faith in the outcomes of reporting to blaming oneself for the incident.

The Process

Heather Ryan, Deputy Title IX Coordinator of Notre Dame, oversees student processes and has a role in administrative investigations and facilitating resources for students reporting. In order to increase reporting, Ryan said the university is trying to improve education about the process and increase agency of the survivor.

“Some of the things we’re trying to do is create spaces where they know about options available… before they have to come in and make a decision,” Ryan said.

Screen Shot 2017-05-01 at 11.50.44 AM
Graphic via University of Notre Dame website

“We want to give a complainant agency and help them make choices…..help them understand all the options in every space that we can,” Ryan said.

However, despite the increased education and awareness, there is a mistrust of the system. Sarah, who recently underwent the Administrative Hearing Process, was urged by friends to not report due to their bad experiences with the system. Sarah ultimately chose to report after hearing of other girls who had been harmed by the same perpetrator, but felt that her assailant did not take the hearing seriously because he wasn’t afraid of consequences.

“In my case, my rapist said that he trusts the process,” Sarah said. “Why would you trust the process more than I do? I should be trusting the process to protect me, to benefit me, but the fact that he said, as a respondent, that he trusts the process, in a hearing, on record, and I was like, I don’t- is problematic.”

Based on conversations with students who don’t know anyone personally affected by sexual assault at Notre Dame, many students see the numbers or crime alerts and still don’t fully understand the weight of the issue.

Amelia (whose name has also been changed) is a survivor who was assaulted by a friend of a friend visiting campus.

“Now that it has happened I can see how it could happen to anyone,” she said. “The statistics aren’t accurate because not everyone wants to talk about it…it’s an epidemic I would say.”

Current Movements

The primary movement to combat sexual assault on campus is greeNDot – “violence prevention strategy predicated on the belief that individual safety is a community responsibility and not just that of the victim or perpetrator” (Notre Dame Title IX).  

Sarah said, “GreeNDot has become this huge thing that didn’t exist when I got here. But even with that, the culture isn’t changing-it’s not changed-which is really awkward because people will say they’re greeNDot certified… and still rape people.”

On April 20, approximately 100 students and faculty marched from Holy Cross College to Saint Mary’s College, through the Notre Dame campus, and ended at the Grotto to stand in solidarity with all those affected by sexual assault and harassment. The event was part of the international movement, Take Back the Night.

Photo by Adrianna Fazio

Connie Adams, head of the Belles Against Violence Organization at Saint Mary’s, said, “Take Back the Night is an opportunity to gather together as one. It is only in unity that we will be able to work together to find a solution to end violence and abuse.”

Professor Pamela Butler of the University of Notre Dame, however, had a different take on the issue. Although she sees the value in having a professional and institutionalized responses to rape culture, she believes that the most profound movements come directly from student led movements.

Students need to make their own voices heard,” she said.

“I’m most concerned with are the professionalization of sexual assault advocacy and response  on college campus what we’ve lost with that. I think we’ve gained things, but we’ve lost some things…the centrality of students’ voices to this entire process.”

The Future

As an additional strategy to combat sexual assault, campus leaders are currently discussing the use of the new app, Callisto. The app’s novelty is rooted in three main elements:

Screen Shot 2017-04-23 at 12.49.58 PM
Graphic via Callisto website

Notre Dame has not officially decided to utilize Callisto on campus, but the conversation is currently in the works, officials said.

Future Goals

According to the 2016 Campus Climate survey,  91 percent of students agree (68 percent) or somewhat agree (23 percent) that they are aware of strategies to intervene if a situation had the potential for sexual assault. This is a 10 percent increase from the 2015 campus climate survey, which is some improvement in the realm of education and awareness about sexual assault, but the war is far from won.

“I think the more we can get students to be a part of the discussion…that’s how we are going to minimize this, because students are a part of that,” Ryan said. “It’s how do we create space where this isn’t OK.
“I can see it shifting, but it’s not where any of us want it to be.”

World Cup Timeline

The World Cup, the word’s most watched sporting event, gains traction from every corner of the globe. Every four years, the 32 best soccer teams in the world battle for the coveted trophy, the honor, and for their dedicated fans back home. The World Cup history is filled with drama, passion, and underdog stories. To take a look back at the history of the tournament, I created a Timeline to reminisce on some of the most memorable moments.

From own goals to shoe-less social statements, the World Cup has an awing history. Take a peak at the past 87 years and see what you know!

World Cup Timeline

Reflecting on #BlackHistoryMonth – Storify

With the conclusion of Black History Month, dozens of Tweets, Facebook Posts, YouTube videos, and news articles had accumulated to commemorate African-American presence in the United States.
I used Storify to collaborate all of the forms of media to document the events in the grander history of Black History Month and Black History Month 2017.

Black History Month acknowledges the past, present, and future of racial equality. From major news sources to political officials, entertainers, and common people, Black History Month continues to radiate throughout multimedia journalism and social media platforms.

Reflecting on #BlackHistoryMonth

Best Beaches on Cape Cod

It is undeniable that Cape Cod beaches are international tourist destinations and bucket list attractions. Everyone has their favorite piece of Massachusetts shoreline and it seems that the competition between loyal beach-goers never ceases and the debates never end. Though all are frequented by families, teens, and adults alike, certain beaches are better suited for specific audiences.

I have compiled a map of the best beaches on Cape Cod (data provided by boston.com) with a link to a video of each beach, a description of the clientele, and geographic description.

Whether it be the vast dunes of Welfleet or the rolling Brewster flats, there is a beach for every occasion.

This is a map of the best beaches on Cape Cod. All data was collected from boston.com. (Map created by Adriana Fazio)


Google Trends – The Oscars and Spring Break Destinations


The slowly approaching 2017 Oscars will be held Sunday, February 26th, and thus commences two weeks filled with commentary, controversy, and a sudden interest in the film arts. The 2017 nominees for Best Picture include Manchester By The SeaArrivalLa La Land, and Hidden Figures.

Using Google Trends, I compared the Google search interest  of these four films in comparison to Spotlight, the Best Picture winner in 2016. Over the past 30 days, La La Land and Hidden Figures have clearly gained the most traction of the four nominees, followed by a consistent interest in Spotlight. Arrival and Manchester By The Sea have a seemingly lower interest rate, but are still notoriously popular and strong contenders. Due to technical limitations, FencesHacksaw RidgeHell Or High WaterLion, and Moonlight (the other nominees) are left out of the graphic.

Covering a wide array of interests and social issues, the 2017 nominees encompass a variety of audiences. However, the energy surrounding all aspects of La La Land is undeniably reflected in the search interest over time. It will be interesting to to compare the Academy’s verdicts with the people’s searches; will there be correlation with the two? To be decided on Oscar Sunday: February 26th 7 P.M. Est on ABC.

View the Google Trend graph yourself!



Though February brings the perfect weather to binge watch all of the Oscar Nominees, it also breeds a strong disdain for snow, sleet, wind chill, and grey skies. Not quite the turning point for early spring, the 28 days seem to endlessly drag on. With my own mind thinking towards spring break, I used Google Trends to compare search interest in five popular warm weather destinations: Palm Springs (CA), Palm Beach (FL), Daytona Beach (FL), Cabo San Lucas (Mexico), and the Outer Banks (NC).

All five destinations usually attract different crowds. Daytona Beach is the home to the infamous “college spring break” experience, Palm Beach (though undeniably a fun scene) attracts families as well. Palm Springs is usually aimed at an older crowd, but since it is home to the Coachella Valley Music and Arts Festival, it has become a more popular destination.

Cabo San Lucas is frequented by students from Southern California and Arizona (a warm beach just a short plane ride away) and the Outer Banks are a universal favorite and a bucket list vacation. Though the varying crowds, Palm Beach is clearly gaining the most consistent interest this winter. The peak interest in Palm Springs occurred in mid-January: the week the Coachella Line-Up was revealed. Cabo, Daytona, and the “OBX” still sound like lovely trips, but they do not seem to be the hot commodity this spring break season.

View the Google Trend graph yourself!